The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute
Web Site of the Institute
Director : Haluk Ozener
Assistant Directors : Nurcan Meral Ozel, Haluk Ozener
Professors : Sinan Akkar, Mustafa Aktar, Atilla Ansal*, Eser Cakti, Mustafa Erdik, Semih Ergintav, Cemil Gurbuz, Onur Gurkan*, Hayrullah Karabulut, Nurcan Meral Ozel, Haluk Ozener, Ali Pinar, Erdal Safak, Niyazi Turkelli
Associate Professor : Bahadır Aktuğ, Asli Dogru, Ayse Edincliler, S. Bulent Tank
Assistant Professors : Cagri Diner, Gulum Tanircan, Karin Sesetyan, Eren Uckan
Instructors : Prof. Dr. Omer Alptekin*, Dr. Esen Arpat*, Prof. Dr. Onur Gurkan*, Tahsin Omer Tahaoglu, Dr. Onur Yilmaz, Dr. Can Zulfikar*
The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute offers graduate work leading to the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in:
I. Earthquake Engineering
In addition, a multi-disciplinary Graduate Program for M.S. in Earthquake Risk Reduction is offered by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute as summarized at the end.
The primary objective of the graduate program is to train specialists and/or theoreticians (required for research and teaching) in geodesy, geophysics and earthquake engineering, capable of creative and original thinking and disseminating new ideas and concepts in related activities in Turkey.
Definitions and Fundamental Goals of Geodesy, Geophysics and Earthquake Engineering:
I. Earthquake Engineering
The Earthquake Engineering program is intended for Civil Engineers who wish to specialize in earthquake ground motion, earthquake hazard assessment, the analysis of earthquake response and the earthquake-resistant design of structures and systems.
The graduate courses offered by the department encompass earthquake strong motion, earthquake hazard assessment, selection of design basis earthquake motions; site response and site effects on ground motions and building damage; structural monitoring, data analysis, system identification, earthquake resistant design procedures for buildings of reinforced concrete, steel, precast, prestressed and masonry construction; off-shore structures, earth and concrete dams, liquid storage tanks, bridges, retaining walls, equipments and secondary systems.
Geodesy deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, including its gravity field, in a three-dimensional time varying space.
The major geodetic goals may be summarized as follows:
a) Establishment and maintenance of local, regional, national, continental and global three-dimensional geodetic control networks.
b) Measurement and representation of geodynamic phenomena (polar motion, spinning, earth tides, plate motion, local crustal movements, etc.)
c) Determination of actual gravity field of the earth including temporal variations.
The objectives of the courses offered are then to provide the student with the necessary knowledge and skills for such geodetic activities as
1) Treatment of the existing national geodetic control networks,
2) Geodetic applications in global, regional and local geodynamics programs (especially in earthquake studies), and
3) Detection and monitoring of deformations of very large structures.
Geophysics deals with the time varying physical aspects of the earth. The aim of geophysics, as applied to the body of the earth, is to determine the composition and state of the interior, and the manner in which internal processes produce the observed features of the earth's surface.
The objectives of the courses offered are then:
1) To improve better understanding of the solid earth, in particular the processes that result in the movement and deformation of the tectonic plates;
2) To study all aspects of seismology such as earthquake mechanism, instrumentation and observation, earthquake prediction and earthquake hazard reduction research activities for further understanding of the processes responsible for causing earthquakes, studies of the earth's crust using geophysical methods, engineering application of geophysics, analysis of geomagnetic observations, paleomagnetic and archeomagnetic studies, data processing of the earthquake, explosion and geomagnetic data and exploration of the hydrocarbon and mineral deposits.
MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAMS
Graduate programs leading to the Master of Science degrees in Earthquake Engineering, Geodesy, and Geophysics normally involve two years of graduate work and include,
a) A minimum number of 24 credits of course work to be completed in two successive semesters,
b) A thesis to be completed in the following two semesters.
Of the minimum number of 24 credits, at least one-third should be comprised of required courses specified by the program in which the student is registered. The remaining two-third may be chosen from among elective courses of the program or the courses acceptable by regulations of the Institute, subject to the approval of student advisor. The 24 credits of course work is normally made up of 500 and 600 level courses; however, with the approval of the advisor, some of the program may be composed of 400 level courses, a maximum of two of which with credit, not taken in the students undergraduate program.
Upon completion of course work with a grade-point average of at least 3.00, the student is required to carry out supervised research and complete a thesis in at most two successive semesters. At the discretion of the Institute, this period may be extended by one semester. The student is required to pass an oral examination after the thesis is submitted for approval.
Students with backgrounds in Geodesy and in Geophysics, in Geology and particularly in Physics, in Mathematics and in Computer Engineering may apply to M.Sc. program. However, students without a background in Geodesy and in Geophysics may be allowed to extend their course work to three semesters, taking complementary courses in related fields with the approval of advisor.
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMS
Graduate programs leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy in Geodesy, Geophysics and Earthquake Engineering include (a) a minimum number of 24 credits of course work to be completed in at most four successive semesters, and (b) a dissertation to be completed in at least four at most six semesters following the completion of the course work.
The minimum number of credits of formal course work is made up of elective courses, at the discretion of the particular program in which the student is registered. Since a Ph.D. program is essentially the pursuit of individual interest in a specific professional field, the course work is planned under the guidance of an advisor to fit each student's specific objectives and needs. The 24 credits of course work should normally comprise 600 level courses; however, 400 and 500 level courses without credit, a maximum two 500 level courses with credit, may be included in the program by the approval of the advisor.
The students without an M.Sc. degree from Bogazici University must take at least two 500 or 600 level courses in addition to their regular Ph.D. program.
Upon completion of course work with a grade-point average of at least 3.20, the student is required to pass a qualifying examination. Subsequently, the student can start dissertation work under the supervision of an advisor appointed by the Institute.
The degrees of Doctor of Philosophy is conferred on candidates who have demonstrated general proficiency and high attainment of knowledge and competence in their special field of study, as well as capacity to carry out an independent investigation as evidenced by presentation of an acceptable dissertation embodying the results of original research. The degree requirements are completed on passing an oral examination.
EQE 400 Introduction to Earthquake Engineering (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 5
(Deprem Muhendisligine Giris)
Earthquakes and ground motion. Vibration of structures under ground motion methods of seismic analaysis (codes). Behaviour of building structures under eathquake loading. Introduction to earthquake resistant design of various civil engineering structures.
Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor.
EQE 510 Earthquake Physics and Hazards (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Fizigi ve Tehlikesi)
Theory of plate tectonics, plate tectonic and seismo-tectonic models for Eastern Mediterranean region and Anatolia. Seismic source regionalization. Faulting, ground deformations, subsidence and landslides during earthquakes. Reservoir induced seismicity. Site selection procedures for engineering structures.
EQE 520 Strong Ground Motion (Kuvvetli Yer Hareketi) (3+0+2) 4 ECTS 10
Physics of earthquakes. Seismicity. Seismic waves. Attenuation. Spatial, temporal and frequency domain characteristics and components of ground motion and procedures for their estimation. Strong motion instrumentation. Analysis and interpretation of strong motion data. Fourier, power and response spectrum. Deterministic and probabilistic assessment of the seismic hazard.
EQE 530 Earthquake Response Analysis of Structures I (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 8
(Yapilarin Deprem Davranisi Analizi I)
Free vibration and linear earthquake response analysis of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems, extension to generalized SDOF systems, equivalent seismic load and response spectrum concepts. Three-dimensional free-vibration and linear earthquake response analysis of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems, mode-superposition method, spectral analysis techniques.
EQE 540 Site Response Analysis (Zemin Davranis Analizi) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 8
Earthquake wave propagation in linear and non-linear soil media. Introduction to one and two dimensional plane-strain site response analysis. Kinematics of soil-structure interaction during earthquakes and foundation impedance functions. Seismic soil forces on deep foundations, retaining walls and harbor structures. Soil-pile interaction during earthquakes.
EQE 550 Earthquake Resistant Design (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 8
(Depreme Dayanikli Tasarim)
Strength supply and ductility demand concepts. Nonlinear earthquake response of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems with different hysteretic models. Development and use of constant-ductility response spectra. Theoretical background to Turkish Earthquake Resistant Design Code. Capacity Design principle, strength and ductility requirements for reinforced concrete and steel structures.
EQE 579 Graduate Seminar (Lisansustu Seminer) (0+1+0) 0 Pass/Fail ECTS 3
The widening of students' perspectives and awareness of topics of interest to earthquake engineering through seminars offered by faculty, graduating thesis students, and invited guests from industry, government, business and academia.
EQE 582-595 Selected Topics in Earthquake Engineering (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Muhendisliginde Secilmiş Konular)
Selected topics in the graduate program will be covered to suit individual interest of the students. These courses are aimed at providing an opportunity for advanced research. Subjects are updated from semester to semester.
EQE 620 Earthquake Wave Propagation (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Dalgasi Yayilimi)
Waves in infinite media: dilatational, distortional and plane waves. Waves generated by body forces. Simple SH wave sources. Harmonic waves from cylindrical and spherical cavities. Waves in half space. Reflection and refraction. Surface waves. Waves in layered media. Transfer functions. Scattering and diffraction. Attenuation.
EQE 630 Earthquake Response Analysis of Structures II (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Yapilarin Deprem Davranisi Analizi II)
Essentials of performance-based seismic evaluation and design. Evaluation of strength-based and displacement-based seismic analysis and design methodologies. Theoretical background to inelastic seismic capacity (pushover) analysis. Development and use of constant-strength response spectra. Estimation of seismic demand and acceptance criteria at structural member level.
EQE 650 Experimental Methods in Earthquake Engineering (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Muhendisliginde Deneysel Metodlar)
Dynamic response measurement techniques. Ambient vibration surveys for structural dynamics and micro-regionalization. Forced vibration surveys. System identification. Shaking table tests.
EQE 677 Simulation of Strong Ground Motion (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Kuvvetli Yer Hareketinin Benzetimi)
Earthquake source models (Seismic moment and stress parameters, Brune's source model, near field models, Haskell's model, complex source models). Time domain characteristics of strong ground motion (Root-mean-square ground acceleration, duration, time domain envelope). Frequency domain characteristics of strong ground motion. Radiation pattern and directivity. Simulation of strong ground motion (Stochastic simulations for point source, stochastic simulations for finite fault rupture, deterministic models, empirical Green's function method, hybrid simulation methods).
EQE 678 Earthquake Resistant Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridges
(Betonarme Koprulerin Depreme Dayanikli Tasarimi) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Earthquake resistant design philosophy; preliminary design; structural modelling; analysis; design; use of isolation and energy dissipation devices in design. Assessment of earthquake resistance of existing bridges. Retrofit principles and design.
EQE 679 Seismic Microzonation Methodologies (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Mikrobolgeleme Yontemleri)
Cyclic behavior of soils; site response analysis; liquefaction; simple methods of microzonation; factors of microzonation; zonation with respect to site amplification; zonation for liquefaction; zonation for slope stability.
EQE 680-698 Special Topics in Earthquake Engineering (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Muhendisliginde Ozel Konular)
Special topics covering advanced subjects and the latest developments in earthquake engineering. Subjects are updated from semester to semester.
EQE 690 M.Sc. Thesis (Yuksek Lisans Tezi) ECTS 30
EQE 790 Ph.D. Thesis (Doktora Tezi) ECTS 30
GED 501, 502 M. Sc. Seminar I, II ) (1+0+0) 1 ECTS 10
(Yuksek Lisans Seminerleri I, II
GED 505 Coordinate Systems (Koordinat Sistemleri) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 10
Conventional terrestrial and intertial systems. Differential relationships. Generalized coordinates in geodesy.
GED 507 Geodetic Linear Estimation Theory (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 10
(Jeodezik Dogrusal Kestirim Kurami)
Probability, determinism, random variables and sampling in geodesy. General procedure of geodetic methodology. Concepts of, and relations between observation, model and solution spaces. Linear mean square estimation of parameters of observation, model and solution spaces. Generalized inverse.
GED 511 Fundamentals of Surveying and Mapping (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Olcme ve Haritalamanin Temelleri)
Basic concepts of surveying and mapping; principal surveying instruments and accessories; measurement of angles and distances; error concepts in surveying operations; elements of control network; surveys for locating details; map plotting and drafting; types of surveying; topographic, cadastral, engineering, route, mine, hydrographic, industrial surveying; uses of surveys; elements of surveying projects; elements of photogrammetry; map projections.
GED 515 Adjustment Computations (Dengeleme Hesabi) (3+0+0) 3
Observational errors and error propagation. Weights. Least square adjustment of direct and/or indirect observations. Adjustment with conditions. Solution of normals. United approach. Adjustment of horizontal control, vertical control and gravity network. Curve and surface fitting.
GED 516 Fundamental of Geodesy (Jeodezinin Temelleri) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Euclidean space on the sphere and ellipsoid of revolution. Astronomical positioning and orientation. Gravity field of the earth. Heights above sea level. Terrestrial and space techniques. Geodetic networks. Contribution of geodesy to geodynamics studies.
GED 531 Potential Theory (Potansiyal Kurami) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 8
Attraction and Newtonian potential function. Potential of a solid body, a single and a double layer (dipole). Harmonic functions. Decomposition formula. Boundary-value problems. Dimensions of gravitational and magnetic potentials. Coriolis force. Equipotential surfaces. Lines of force. Curvature of field. Analytical continuation.
GED 533 Advanced Geometric Geodesy (Ileri Geometrik Jeodezi) (3+0+0) 3
Geometry of rotational ellipsoid. Long line problems on the ellipsoid. Ellipsoid alteration and datum transformations. Three-dimensional geodesy. Use of analytic functions for geometric geodesy. Representation of the ellipsoid on a sphere. Projected geodesics. Common projections. Mercator, transverse Mercator projections. Conformal conic projections.
GED 535 Gravity Measurements (Gravite Olculeri) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Actural gravity and other forces. Absolute, relative, sea surface and underwater, and airborne gravity measurements. Corrections and reductions of gravity measurements of gravity gradient. Gravity anomalies and unsurveyed areas. Variation of gravity and geodynamics.
GED 536 Assessment of Geodetic Results (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Jeodezi Sonuclarinin Irdelenmesi)
Statistical tests of hypothesis and significance. Parameters of observation, model and solution spaces. Assessment of observations with univariate tests. Simultaneous assessment of observations and functional models with multivariate tests. Assessment of determined parameters of solution space.
GED 538 Geodetic Control Networks (Jeodezik Kontrol Aglari) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Objectives and ellipsoid and datum problems in geodetic control; astrogeodetic vertical deflections and geoid heights; observations and their reductions; design; use of space techniques and inertial systems; qualitative improvement of existing networks; major geodetic datums; Turkish primary horizontal control network; gravity disturbances and anomalies; tide gauges and vertical datum; height systems; prediction of local anomalies; adjustment procedure; densification; restoration of obliterated points; Turkish primary vertical control and gravity networks.
GED 541 Geodesy and Geodynamics (Jeodezi ve Jeodinamik) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Annual motion of the earth; spinning, precession and nutation; polar motion; earth tides and response of the solid earth to other external effects; tectonic plate movements; crustal deformations; mean and timevarying sea surface; geodynamical effects to geodetic means; earthquake prediction and global geodynamics programs.
GED 542 Continuous Reference Networks (Surekli Basvuru Aglari) (3+0+0) 3
Functions of continuous reference stations and networks; worldwide continuous reference networks and operators; principle of continuous network design; system design: operating systems, software, and architecture; component design; broadcast station and data flow; control station and data flow; control station hardware and its functional description; broadcast station functional description; data formats; maintenance; site selection; buildings and cablings.
GED 543 Deformation Monitoring and Control Surveying (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Sekil Degisimlerinin Izlenmesi ve Kontrol Olcmeleri)
Basic definitions and use of control networks; survey techniques for deformation monitoring; instruments; electronic distance and angle measurements; precise leveling; use of GPS in deformation surveys; photogrammetric techniques; use of non-geodetic methods and equipments; instrumentation and equipment requirements; monitoring frequency; deformation monitoring for engineering structures (underground openings, dams, building, railways, highways, bridges, towers); analysis of deformation measurements.
GED 544 Space Techniques (Uzay Teknikleri) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Coordinate and time systems; conventional celestial reference systems, conventional terrestrial reference systems, time systems and coordinate transformations between these systems; orbital movements; normal orbit, perturbed orbit, visibility; observables; optics, distance and distance difference; geodetic applications; orbit determination, determining crustal deformations, datum transformation; dynamic applications; determining harmonics, pole motion parameters and length of day.
GED 551 Geodetic Infrastructure for GIS (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(CBS için Jeodezik Altyapi
GIS (geographical information system) and geodetic infrastructure integration; spatial data and specifications; importance of positioning and accuracy for GIS; positioning systems and techniques; spatial referencing by coordinates; coordinate systems; datum and geodetic projections; horizontal, vertical, geocentric, dynamic datum; structure of conventional geodetic networks; national conventional geodetic network; structure of space based geodetic networks; Turkish national fundamental GPS network; height information; Turkish national vertical control network; local, National and global geoids; ITRF/ED and other local networks integration; natural disaster effects on geodetic network; importance of time information and velocity modeling; spatial database standards and geodetic data management; national and international geodetic data standards; ISO/TC; data collection techniques for GIS.
GED 552 Management of GIS Projects (3+0+0) 3
(CBS Projelerinin Yönetimi)
Communication and data exchange; strategical planning, current state analysis; project planning, current state analysis; project planning; aim description; conceptual modeling; analysis of cost and benefit; system choice; introduction to the system; preparing system architecture; hardware and software requirements and implementation; GIS management, budgeting for GIS operation and maintenance; feedback; data acquisition; system management; system maintenance and system exchange; manageability and updating of GIS; integrating GIS products with other disciplines, its interpretation and analysis.
GED 553 Visualization in Geodesy (Jeodezide Gorsellestirme) (3+0+0) 3
Geographic information systems (GIS) and cartography; the relations between GIS and cartography; the importance of maps in GIS as a visualization tool; spatial data; examples for the application of cartographic methods; map characteristics in GIS; cartographic approaches; the cartographic communication process in GIS; map functions and map types of GIS applications; cartographic visualization; cognition; communication; formalism; design of maps as end product of GIS; generalization; symbolization; map production; desktop mapping; statistical representation related with GIS; statistical surveys; cartographic analysis for spatial data; statistical mapping methods; techniques for presentation of information; electronic atlases; maps and multimedia systems, animated maps; rule and knowledge-based systems in cartography; some examples of visualization software in GIS.
GED 554 Information Technology and GIS (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Bilgi Teknolojisi ve CBS)
Basics of information technologies; basics of GIS systems; introduction to client/server systems; data modeling approaches; object oriented data modeling and tools; XML in data modeling; comparison of data models; UML, XML and GML in spatial data modeling and exchange problem; query languages in relation to database systems; some relational databases (e.g. Access and Oracle); methods for storing different type of data in databases and comparison between them; metadata; web based GIS; security tools for information systems; examples of GIS softwares (MapInfo, SupportGIS, ArcInfo).
GED 579 Graduate Seminar (Lisansüstü Seminer) (0+1+0) 0 Pass/Fail
The widening of students' perspectives and awareness of topics of interest to geodesy through seminars offered by faculty, graduating thesis students, and invited guests from industry, government, business and academia.
GED 580 Analysis Models for High Precision GPS (3+0+0) 3
(Yüksek Hassasiyetli GPS icin Analiz Modelleri)
Basic observation equations for GPS positioning; observation equations for global and regional GPS studies; earth rotation; reference system and reference frame concepts; advanced observation models; determining precise time difference for high precision application; research softwares; relativistic effects on GPS signals.
GED 581 High Precision GPS Geodesy (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Yuksek Hassasiyetli GPS Jeodezisi)
Historical development of GPS for high precision applications; obtaining high precision by using GPS; use of GPS in geophysical experiments; GPS for determining horizontal and vertical crustal movements; error sources on vertical positioning with GPS; GPS for determining global sea level rise; earthquake monitoring using GPS; using GPS for determining earth rotation and polar motion.
GED 590-599 Selected Topics in Geodesy (Jeodezide Secilmis Konular) (3+0+0) 3
Study of selected topics in geodesy. Focus on topics of recent technological and theoretical developments in geodesy.
GED 601, 602 Ph.D. Seminar I, II (Doktora Seminerleri I, II) (1+0+0) 1
Any sustained study of the student which leads to collect materials on a particular subject and to present them. The objective is that the student should improve his/her ability in - self-initiated learning, -systematizing collected materials in order to utilize them not only for oral presentation before audience but also for information retrieval and question answering.
GED 631 Geodesy and Geodynamics (Jeodezi ve Yer Dinamigi) (3+0+0) 3
Annual motion of the earth. Spinning, precession and nutation. Polar motion. Earth tides and response of the solid earth to other external effects. Tectonic plate movements. Crustal deformations. Mean and timevarying sea surface. Geodynamical effects to geodetic means. Earthquake prediction and global geodynamics programs.
GED 632 Geodetic Data Base (Jeodezik Veri Tabani) (3+0+0) 3
Problems of data in geodesy. Basic operations on information sets. The mode of data utilization in geodesy. Structure of geodetic data. Types of files and records. Query and data base management systems. Designing, developing, implementing and maintaining of geodetic databases. Data handling in other disciplines in support of geodetic data.
GED 633 Optimization of Geodetic Networks (3+0+0) 3
(Jeodezi Aglarin Optimizasyonu)
Fundamentals of mathematical optimization and design process. Parameters of Objective functions. Simulation and analytical approaches. Selection of reference system. Design of configuration. Choice of weights. Improvement.
GED 690 M.Sc. Thesis (Yuksek Lisans Tezi) ECTS 30
Any small project which leads to in-depth study of a demonstrating problem solving and report writing capabilities of the student.
GED 693 Special Topics in Geodesy I (Secimlik Konular I) (3+0+0) 3
Basic technology of space geodesy, concept and application of time and frequency, and radio infterferometry, concept and technology of satellite navigation, satellite and lunar laser ranging, concept of ring laser and optical interferometry.
GED 694 Special Topics in Geodesy II (Secimlik Konular II) (3+0+0) 3
Techniques of space geodesy, Global Positioning System (GPS) and differential GPS, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) applications.
GED 790 Ph. D. Thesis (Doktora Tezi) ECTS 30
The Ph.D. thesis is a scholarly contribution to knowledge in the area of specialization. By researching and writing a thesis the student is expected to demonstrate a high level of knowledge and capability of function as an independent scholar.
Fields of Specialization
GPH 540 Wave Propogation I
GPH 542 Physics of Earthquake Source I
GPH 547 Seismic Instrumentation
GPH 521 Earthquake Geology
II. Applied Geophysics
GPH 560 Environmental and Applied Geophysics
GPH 530 Electromagnetic Methods in Geophysics
GPH 540 Wave propogation I
GPH 547 Seismic Interpretation
GPH 532 Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism
GPH 530 Electromagnetic Methods in Geophysics
GPH 521 Earthquake Geology
GPH 501 Fundamentals of Theoretical Geophysics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Teorik Jeofizigin Temeli)
Vector fields in geophysics. Vector calculus. Multiple integrals. Integral of vector fields over curves and surfaces. Integral theorems: Green's Theorem in the plane. Divergence Stoke's Theorem. Conservative fields, potentials. Potential and fields for gravity and electrostatics. Fluid flow. Electrical and magnetic fields. Partial differential equations in geophysics. Heat equation. Method of separation of variables. Wave equation: d'Alembert Solution. Wave equation in polar coordinates.
GPH 503 Mathematical Methods in Geophysics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 8
(Jeofizikte Matematiksel Yontemler)
Matrix algebra, inverse matrix, eigenvalues, eigenvectors. Complex analysis. Integral transform. Application from geophysical theory. Obligatory course.
GPH 505 Geophysical Data Processing (Jeofizikte Veri Analizi) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Basic signals, sampling, Z transforms, Fourier analysis. Least squares fitting, covariance and correlation functions. Power spectra. Probability. Normal, Binomial and Poisson distributions. Deconvolution, optimum filters, linear filters in earth sciences. Special filters in geophysics: polarization analysis, f-k filtering. Obligatory course.
GPH 507 Introduction to Seismology (Sismolojiye Giris (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Study of seismology, the science of earthquakes and its historical development. Seismic waves: body waves, surface waves. Travel times and structure of the earth. Seismogram interpretation. Seismographs. Anelasticity and anisotropy. Focal parameters of earthquakes: earthquakes and faults, location, magnitude, seismic moment, intensity, seismic energy. Seismicity, seismotectonics, seismic hazard and seismic risk. Can not be taken for credits by the Department of Geophysics students.
GPH 509 Introduction to Geophysical Methods (3+0+0) Non-credit
(Jeofizik Yontemlere Giris)
A detailed study of the theory and application of geophysical methods for mining, petroleum exploration and engineering studies. Emphasis on recent advances is seismic, gravity, electrical and magnetic techniques. Laboratory work to solve exploration problems in magnetic, electrical and seismic methods.
GPH 520 Plate Tectonics and Crustal Dynamics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Levha Tektonigi ve Kabuk Dinamigi)
The interior of the earth. Characteristics of the earth's crust. Principal tectonic features of the earth. Oceanic crust and spreading centers. Plate motion; driving forces. Convergent margins; subductions, back-arc basins. Oceanic transform faults. Triple junctions and supercontinents. Collision, development of orogenic belts, formation of mountain roots, ophiolite emplacement, sutures, delamination. Case studies: Himalaya, Alps, Ural, Ands, Red Sea, Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia, Aegean.
GPH 521 Earthquake Geology (Deprem Jeolojisi) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Brittle fracture of rock. Rock friction. Mechanics of faulting and earthquakes. Seismotectonics. Geology of earthquake source region. Active fault morphology, tectonic geodesy, seismic cycle, earthquake prediction.
GPH 525 Computers in Geosciences (1+0+0) 1 ECTS 3
C and Fortran programming. Application of numerical methods to computer simulations of geophysical methods. Development of individual projects, writing appropriate computer codes. Introduction to efficient use of Matlab as a tool for research in Earth Sciences.
GPH 528 The Physics of Earth's Interior (Yericinin Fizigi) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Chemical and physical models of the earth. Studying structure of the earth's crust by using explosion and earthquake seismology, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic methods. Case studies from Turkey and the world.
GPH 530 Electromagnetic Methods in Geophysics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Jeofizikte Elektromanyetik Yontemler)
Study of electromagnetic sounding methods. Principles of magnetotellurics (MT), controlled source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT), geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) and very-low-frequency (VLF) methods. Field applications and interpretation of electromagnetic data.
GPH 531 Fields in Geophysics (Jeofizikte Potansiyel Alanlar) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Introduction to the classical field theory of geophysical interest, namely steady state and time dependent electromagnetic fields, currents. Lagrangian field hheory. Gravitational and magnetic fields.
GPH 532 Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Jeomanyetizma ve Paleomanyetizma)
Historical development of geomagnetism. Global geomagnetic studies, observation techniques, instrumentation and geomagnetic observatories. Introduction to paleomagnetism.
GPH 540 Wave Propagation I (Dalga Yayinimi I) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 8
Stress and strain, equation of motion, wave equation, one dimensional solution of wave equation, body waves and ray theory, Snell's Law, travel times and the structure of the Earth.
GPH 542 Physics of Earthquake Sources I (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Kaynagi Fiziği I)
Point sources. Near field, far field radiation. Equivalent body forces. Double couple sources. Elastostatic. Elastodynamic. Seismic moment tensor. Radiation pattern. Fault plane solutions. Finite sources. Rupture models. Haskell source. Source directivity. Source spectrum. Fault geometry and corner frequency. Stress drop, rupture velocity. Magnitude. Energy.
GPH 543 Observational Seismology (Gozlemsel Sismoloji) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Historical and conceptual background of observational seismology, consequences of recent technical developments, seismicity, seismic sources and source parameters, rules and procedures for magnitude determination and magnitude scales, seismic waves and travel times, seismic signals and noise, seismic data formats, data analysis and seismogram interpretation, seismic analysis codes (SAC, seatools, geotools), locating earthquakes.
GPH 544 Seismic Instrumentation (Sismik Aletler) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Overview, basic theory and history of seismometry. The frequency response function, the transfer function, the impulse response function, the condition for stability, the step response function, pole and zero positions. Seismometry, seismic sensors and their calibration, seismic recording systems. Seismic networks: site selection, preparation and installation of seismic stations, seismic network purpose, seismic network configuration, data transmission and data acquisition. Seismic arrays.
GPH 547 Seismic Interpretation (Sismik Yorumlama) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Theory of seismic refraction and reflection, data processing, velocity analysis, filtering, migration, synthetic seismograms, two and three-dimensional interpretation, computer applications and examples.
GPH 560 Environmental and Applied Geophysics (1+0+0) 1 ECTS 3
(Cevresel ve Uygulamali Jeofizik)
Principles and applications of geophysical methods, seismic refraction and reflection, gravity, magnetism, electromagnetism, resistivity and ground penetrating radar. Hands on field exercises and demos at some selected sites. Familiarization with report writing and application of each method. Site studies related to environmental, engineering and archaeological problems.
GPH 579 Graduate Seminar (Yuksek Lisans Semineri) (0+1+0) 0 Pass/Fail
The widening of students' perspectives and awareness of topics of interest to geophysicists through seminars offered by faculty, guest speakers and graduate students. Obligatory course.
GPH 591-594 Selected Topics in Geophysics I-IV (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Jeofizikte Secilmis Konular I-IV)
Topics related to the research works in geophysics. Practical aspects of explosion and earthquake seismology. Use of software for analyzing collected geophysical data and preparing scientific reports.
GPH 595-596 Independent Studies I-II (1+0+0) 1 ECTS 3
(Bagimsiz Calismalar I-II)
Independent research projects or directed readings designed to meet the needs and interests of individual students. Regular conferences given by students and instructors required.
GPH 598 M.S. Seminar (Yuksek Lisans Semineri) (1+0+0) 1 ECTS 3
Investigation in depth of a special topic related with the student's major area of study and research in geophysics, with the aim of original contribution to the subject. Preparation and defence of a M.S. thesis.
GPH 601-602 Ph.D. Seminar I-II (Doktora Semineri I-II) (1+0+0) 1 ECTS 3
Material collection and presentation of a particular subject of interest to the student. Improvement of the students' ability in self-initiated learning, systematizing collected materials for utilization, not only for oral presentation but also for information retrieval and responding to questions.
GPH 630 Magnetotelluric Method (MT) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Theoretical basis of magnetotelluric (MT) method. Apparent resistivity and phase relationships in MT. Field experiments. Data processing and modeling of MT data.
GPH 631 Advanced Geomagnetism (IIeri Yermanyetizmasi) (3+0+0) 3
Spherical harmonic analysis. External, crustal and internal geomagnetic fields, representation of the internal field, secular variation, dipole and non-dipole fields, westward drift. Introduction to dynamo theory.
GPH 633 Numerical Methods in Electromagnetics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Elektromanyetikte Sayisal Yontemler)
Finite element method (FEM) in electromagnetism. Ritz and Galerkin methods. One, two and three dimensional finite element analyses, boundary value problems.
GPH 640 Array Seismology (Dizilim Sismolojisi ) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
The term "Seismic array", geometrical parameters, beam forming and detection processing, array transfer function, slowness estimation using seismic arrays, array design.
GPH 641 Physics of Earthquake Source II (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Deprem Kaynagi Fiziği II)
Moment tensor representation. Body wave modeling. Surface wave modeling. Rectangular and circular fault models. Rupture dynamics. Friction: Byerlee's Law, Coulomb failure, slip-weakening, rate- and state-dependent friction. Nucleation, propogation and arrest of a rupture. Crack growth model. Spatio-temporal seismicity patterns. Characterization of fault zone structures, trapped waves.
GPH 642 Global Seismology (Kuresel Sismoloji) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Global distribution of seismic sources. Large scale structure of the Earth. Crustal and upper mantle propagation. Mantle and core phases. Receiver function. Global tomography. S-wave splitting and upper mantle anisotropy. Free oscillations of the Earth. Surface waves on spherical earth. Normal modes. Centroid moment tensor.
GPH 644 Inversion Methods in Geophysics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Jeofizikte Ters Cozum Yontemleri)
Inverse of matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition, linear inverse problems, least squares solution of the linear inverse problems, solving underdetermined and overdetermined problems with constraints, generalized inverses, Monte Carlo methods, genetic algorithms.
GPH 645 Numerical Methods in Seismology (3+0+0) 3
(Sismolojide Sayisal Yontemler)
Developing computer algorithms for a variety of seismological problems. Finite-difference and finite element methods for the solution of wave equation. Numerical solution of Lamp's problem. Ray tracing techniques. Solution of integral equations. Propagator matrices. Time-frequency analysis of seismic signals.
GPH 647 Wave Propagation II (Dalga Yayinimi II) (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
Equation of motion, elastic wave equation, reflection-transmission coefficients, surface waves, Lamb's problem, wave propagation in layered media, numerical solutions of wave equation.
GPH 671 Statistical Methods in Geo-Hazard Assessment (3+0+0) 3
(Kuresel Tehlikelerin Belirlenmesinde Istatistiksel Yontemler)
Basic concept of probability and random processes in geophysics. Gaussian distribution. Exponential distribution. Stationarity. Wiener process. Poisson process. Extreme value statistics Gumbel's distribution. Markov sequences. Frequency-magnitude relationship. Time dependent hazard models. Estimation: linear-mean square estimation, Bayes estimation, maximum likelihood estimation. Methodologies for studying seismic hazard. Case studies in Eastern Mediterranean region.
GPH 673 Advanced Exploration Geophysics (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Ileri Arama Jeofizigi)
Advanced treatments of recent topics of interest in exploration geophysics, with emphasis on refraction and reflection prospecting. Principles of refraction and refraction seismology. Experience in computer processing of seismic data.
GPH 690 M.S. Thesis (Yüksek Lisans Tezi) ECTS 30
Investigation in depth of a special topic related with the student's major area of study and research in geophysics, with the aim of original contribution to the subject. Preparation and defence of a M.S. thesis.
GPH 691-694 Special Topics in Geophysics I-IV (3+0+0) 3 ECTS 7
(Jeofizikte Ozel Konular I-IV)
Recent developments in geophysics are main contents of this lecture. Contents of this lecture vary each year.
GPH 790 Ph.D. Thesis (Doktora Tezi) ECTS 30
Original research on the theoretical and/or applicational aspects of a special topic related with the student's major area of specialization in geophysics. Preparation and defence of Ph.D. dissertation.